Project Economist Mun HO and Executive Director Chris NIELSEN have an op-ed in Fortune (and in Chinese at Fortune China)on the underappreciated reasons China's red alert air pollution episodes are proving so difficult to control. Factors range from atmospheric chemistry and meteorology to economics and politics. Research referenced in the article include ... the following sources:
On China's success at reducing SO2 and NOX emissions and the air quality implications:
- C. P. Nielsen and M. S. Ho, eds. 2013. Clearer Skies Over China: Reconciling Air Quality, Climate, and Economic Goals. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
- Y. Zhao, J. Zhang, and C. P. Nielsen. 2014. The effects of energy paths and emission controls and standards on future trends in China's emissions of primary air pollutants. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14: 8849-8868.
On trends in PM2.5 levels in Beijing, a source reporting the official data is:
- Xinhua. 2017. 环保部：2016年全国PM2.5平均浓度同比下降6%. 5 January.
On the role of ammonia and NOX in offsetting SO2 and sulfate reductions in North China:
- Y. Wang, Q. Q. Zhang, K. He, Q. Zhang and L. Chai. 2013. Sulfate-nitrate-ammonium aerosols over China: response to 2000-2015 emission changes of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and ammonia. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13:2635-2652.
On the possible PM2.5-radiation feedback on the stability of the atmosphere (planetary boundary layer):
- J. Wang, S. Wang, J. Jiang, A. Ding, M. Zheng, B. Zhao, D. C. Wong, W. Zhou, G. Zheng, L. Wang, J. E. Pleim and J. Hao. 2014. Impact of aerosol-meteorology interactions on fine particle pollution during China’s severe haze episode in January 2013. Environmental Research Letters, 9.
On effects of changing East Asian winter monsoon (and Siberian High) on North China haze episodes:
- B. Jia, Y. Wang, Y. Yao, and Y. Xie. 2015. A new indicator on the impact of large-scale circulation on wintertime particulate matter pollution over China. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15:11919-11929.
On China's most recent commitment to renewable power expansion:
- Reuters. 2017. China to plow $361 billion into renewable fuel by 2020. 5 Jan.